Citing literature

Because of its multidisciplinary profile, ST-OPEN accepts two styles of literature citing. The authors are free to choose one of the styles and should then strictly adhere to it. ST-OPEN does not encourage the use of footnotes or endnote comments. All references should be mentioned in the text and listed at the end of the article. Comments should be a part of the manuscript text, in brackets if necessary.
The two styles of citing are that of the American Psychological Association (APA, and the one developed by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE,, also known as the Vancouver style). APA style is commonly used in social sciences and humanities, and Vancouver style in natural, life, health and technical sciences.

ST-OPEN adheres to the Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing, and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals developed by International Committee of Medical Journal Editors. Identify the type of reference you want to cite, and then see some of the examples of how this type of reference is cited. The detailed list is available at

Article in a journal, standard journal article:
List the first six authors followed by et al. (Note: NLM now lists all authors.)
Halpern SD, Ubel PA, Caplan AL. Solid-organ transplantation in HIV-infected patients. N Engl J Med. 2002 Jul 25;347(4):284-7.
As an option, if a journal carries continuous pagination throughout a volume (as many journals do) the month and issue number may be omitted.
Halpern SD, Ubel PA, Caplan AL. Solid-organ transplantation in HIV-infected patients. N Engl J Med. 2002;347:284-7.

More than six authors
Rose ME, Huerbin MB, Melick J, Marion DW, Palmer AM, Schiding JK, et al. Regulation of interstitial excitatory amino acid concentrations after cortical contusion injury. Brain Res. 2002;935(1-2):40-6.

Organization as author
Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group. Hypertension, insulin, and proinsulin in participants with impaired glucose tolerance. Hypertension. 2002;40(5):679-86.
Both personal authors and an organization as author (This example does not conform to NISO standards.)
Vallancien G, Emberton M, Harving N, van Moorselaar RJ; Alf-One Study Group. Sexual dysfunction in 1,274 European men suffering from lower urinary tract symptoms. J Urol. 2003;169(6):2257-61.

No author given
21st century heart solution may have a sting in the tail. BMJ. 2002;325(7357):184.

Article not in English
(Note: NLM translates the title into English, encloses the translation in square brackets, and adds an abbreviated language designator.)
Ellingsen AE, Wilhelmsen I. Sykdomsangst blant medisin- og jusstudenter. Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2002;122(8):785-7.

Volume with supplement
Geraud G, Spierings EL, Keywood C. Tolerability and safety of frovatriptan with short- and long-term use for treatment of migraine and in comparison with sumatriptan. Headache. 2002;42 Suppl 2:S93-9.

Issue with supplement
Glauser TA. Integrating clinical trial data into clinical practice. Neurology. 2002;58(12 Suppl 7):S6-12.

Article published electronically ahead of the print version:
Yu WM, Hawley TS, Hawley RG, Qu CK. Immortalization of yolk sac-derived precursor cells. Blood. 2002 Nov 15;100(10):3828-31. Epub 2002 Jul 5.

Books and other monographs
Personal author(s)
Murray PR, Rosenthal KS, Kobayashi GS, Pfaller MA. Medical microbiology. 4th ed. St. Louis: Mosby; 2002.

Editor(s), compiler(s) as author
Gilstrap LC 3rd, Cunningham FG, VanDorsten JP, editors. Operative obstetrics. 2nd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2002.

Author(s) and editor(s)
Breedlove GK, Schorfheide AM. Adolescent pregnancy. 2nd ed. Wieczorek RR, editor. White Plains (NY): March of Dimes Education Services; 2001.

Organization(s) as author
Royal Adelaide Hospital; University of Adelaide, Department of Clinical Nursing. Compendium of nursing research and practice development, 1999-2000. Adelaide (Australia): Adelaide University; 2001.

Chapter in a book
Meltzer PS, Kallioniemi A, Trent JM. Chromosome alterations in human solid tumors. In: Vogelstein B, Kinzler KW, editors. The genetic basis of human cancer. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2002. p. 93-113.

Conference proceedings
Harnden P, Joffe JK, Jones WG, editors. Germ cell tumours V. Proceedings of the 5th Germ Cell Tumour Conference; 2001 Sep 13-15; Leeds, UK. New York: Springer; 2002.

Conference paper
Christensen S, Oppacher F. An analysis of Koza's computational effort statistic for genetic programming. In: Foster JA, Lutton E, Miller J, Ryan C, Tettamanzi AG, editors. Genetic programming. EuroGP 2002: Proceedings of the 5th European Conference on Genetic Programming; 2002 Apr 3-5; Kinsdale, Ireland. Berlin: Springer; 2002. p. 182-91.

Borkowski MM. Infant sleep and feeding: a telephone survey of Hispanic Americans [dissertation]. Mount Pleasant (MI): Central Michigan University; 2002.

Pagedas AC, inventor; Ancel Surgical R&D Inc., assignee. Flexible endoscopic grasping and cutting device and positioning tool assembly. United States patent US 20020103498. 2002 Aug 1.

Newspaper article
Tynan T. Medical improvements lower homicide rate: study sees drop in assault rate. The Washington Post. 2002 Aug 12;Sect. A:2 (col. 4).

Audiovisual material
Chason KW, Sallustio S. Hospital preparedness for bioterrorism [videocassette]. Secaucus (NJ): Network for Continuing Medical Education; 2002.

Legal material
Public law:
Veterans Hearing Loss Compensation Act of 2002, Pub. L. No. 107-9, 115 Stat. 11 (May 24, 2001).

Unenacted bill:
Healthy Children Learn Act, S. 1012, 107th Cong., 1st Sess. (2001).

Code of Federal Regulations:
Cardiopulmonary Bypass Intracardiac Suction Control, 21 C.F.R. Sect. 870.4430 (2002).

Pratt B, Flick P, Vynne C, cartographers. Biodiversity hotspots [map]. Washington: Conservation International; 2000.

Dictionary and similar references
Dorland's illustrated medical dictionary. 29th ed. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders; 2000. Filamin; p. 675.

Unpublished material
In press:
(Note: NLM prefers "forthcoming" because not all items will be printed.)
Tian D, Araki H, Stahl E, Bergelson J, Kreitman M. Signature of balancing selection in Arabidopsis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. In press 2002.

Electronic material
Journal article on the Internet
Abood S. Quality improvement initiative in nursing homes: the ANA acts in an advisory role. Am J Nurs [serial on the Internet]. 2002 Jun [cited 2002 Aug 12];102(6):[about 3 p.]. Available from:

Monograph on the Internet
Foley KM, Gelband H, editors. Improving palliative care for cancer [monograph on the Internet]. Washington: National Academy Press; 2001 [cited 2002 Jul 9]. Available from:

Homepage/Web site: [homepage on the Internet]. New York: Association of Cancer Online Resources, Inc.; c2000-01 [updated 2002 May 16; cited 2002 Jul 9]. Available from:

Part of a homepage/Web site:
American Medical Association [homepage on the Internet]. Chicago: The Association; c1995-2002 [updated 2001 Aug 23; cited 2002 Aug 12]. AMA Office of Group Practice Liaison; [about 2 screens]. Available from:

Database on the Internet
Open database:
Who's Certified [database on the Internet]. Evanston (IL): The American Board of Medical Specialists. c2000 - [cited 2001 Mar 8]. Available from:

Closed database:
Jablonski S. Online Multiple Congential Anomaly/Mental Retardation (MCA/MR) Syndromes [database on the Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US). c1999 [updated 2001 Nov 20; cited 2002 Aug 12]. Available from:



American Psychological Association (APA) style ( requires that all in-text citations in the manuscript should have a corresponding full reference at the end of the article under the title “References”. References are listed in alphabetical order by the first word in the reference (usually the author's last name, sometimes the title). If the reference begins with the words A, An, or The, ignore them and alphabetize the reference by the word following it.

The recommendations in this guide are based on the 6th edition (2009) of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. For more in-depth explanation of formatting and preparing works cited lists, please consult the 6th edition of the Publication Manual.



General reference form:
Author, A. A., Author, B. B. & Author C. C. (Year of publication). Title of article. Title of Periodical, volume(issue), pp–pp. doi:xx.xxxxxxxx


Journal article with DOI
Milton, C. L. (2009). Leadership and ethics in nurse-nurse relationships. Nursing Science Quarterly, 22(2), 116–119. doi:10.1177/0894318409332569

Journal article without DOI
Daniels, E. (2010). Welcome to the classroom: Ten tips for teaching college freshmen. College & Research Libraries News, 71(8), 424–425.

Journal article with three to seven authors
Takeuchi, H., Osono, E., & Shimizu, N. (2008). The contradictions that drive Toyota’s success. Harvard Business Review, 86(6), 96–104.

Journal article with more than seven authors
Booth, B. J., Jones, C., Alexander, S. K., Stanford, A., Brown, D. S., Benke, J. M., . . . Platman, L. A. (2010). Introduction to basket weaving: Utilizing natural materials. Just Patterns Magazine, 5(2), 42–47.

Journal article with title translated into English
Guimard, P., & Florin, A. (2007). Les évaluations des enseignants en grande section de maternelle sont-elles prédictives des difficultés de lecture au cours préparatoire? [Are teacher ratings in kindergarten predictive of reading difficulties in first grade?]. Approche Neuropsychologique des Apprentissages chez l’Enfant, 19, 5–17.

Journal article with DOI, advance online publication
Von Ledebur, S. C. (2007). Optimizing knowledge transfer by new employees in companies. Knowledge Management Research & Practice. Advance online publication. doi:10.1057/palgrave.kmrp.8500141

In-press article posted in a preprint archive
Briscoe, R. (in press). Egocentric spatial representation in action and perception. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research. Retrieved from

Newspaper article
Rosenberg, G. (1997, March 31). Electronic discovery proves an effective legal weapon. The New York Times, p. D5.

Online newspaper article
Eisenhauer, L. (2010, September 19). Check out the colors of autumn on a two-wheel getaway. St. Louis Post-Dispatch. Retrieved from



General reference form:
Author(s). (Year of Publication). Title of book. Publisher City, State: Publisher.

For an entire book, use the following reference formats:
Author, A. A. (1967). Title of work. Publisher City, State: Publisher.

Author, A. A. (1997). Title of work. Retrieved from http://www.xxxxxxx

Author, A. A. (2006). Title of work. doi:xxxxx

Editor, A. A. (Ed.). (1986). Title of work. Publisher City, State: Publisher.

For a chapter in a book or entry in a reference book, use the following formats:
Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (1995). Title of chapter or entry. In A. Editor, B. Editor, & C. Editor (Eds.), Title of book (pp. xxx–xxx). Publisher City, State: Publisher.

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (1993). Title of chapter or entry. In A. Editor (Ed.), Title of book (pp. xxx–xxx). Retrieved from http://www.xxxxxxx

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (1995). Title of chapter or entry. In A. Editor, B. Editor, & C. Editor (Eds.), Title of book (pp. xxx–xxx). doi:xxxxxxxx


Entire book, print version
Shotton, M. A. (1989). Computer addiction? A study of computer dependency. London, England: Taylor & Francis.

Electronic version of print book
Shotton, M. A. (1989). Computer addiction? A study of computer dependency. Retrieved from

Electronic-only book
O’Keefe, E. (n.d.). Egoism & the crisis in Western values. Retrieved from

Chapter in print book
Hemingway, E. (1999). The killers. In J. Updike & K. Kenison (Eds.), The best American short stories of the century (pp.78–80). Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.

Chapter in online book
Bellow, S. (1999). A silver dish. In J. Updike & K. Kenison (Eds.), The best american short stories of the century. Retrieved from

Citing an Introduction, Preface, Foreword, or Afterword
Gregory, W. D. (2001). Foreword. In J. C. Cusick & K. F. DeVries, The basic guide to young adult ministry (pp. ix–x). Maryknoll, NY: Orbis.

Non-English book, title translated into English
Real Academia Española. (2001). Diccionario de la lengua española [Dictionary of the Spanish language] (22nd ed.). Madrid, Spain: Author.

Entry in an online reference work
Graham, G. (2005). Behaviorism. In E. N. Zalta (Ed.), The Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy (Fall 2007 ed.). Retrieved from

Entry in an online reference work, no author or editor
Heuristic. (n.d.). In Merriam-Webster’s online dictionary (11th ed.). Retrieved from

Encyclopedia article, signed
Grossman, W. L. (1996). History of transportation. In L. S. Bahr, B. Johnston, & L. A. Bloomfield (Eds.), Collier’s encyclopedia (Vol. 22, pp. 416–439). New York, NY: Collier.

Encyclopedia article, unsigned
Gulf of Thessaloniki. (1996). In L. S. Bahr, B. Johnston, & L. A. Bloomfield (Eds.), Collier’s encyclopedia (Vol. 22, p. 285). New York, NY: Collier.


Conference papers and presentations

General reference form:
Author, A. A. (Year). Title of paper. In A. Editor & B Editor (Eds.) Title of proceedings (page numbers). Publisher City, State: Publisher.


Author, A. A. (Year). Title of paper. In A. Editor & B. Editor (Eds.) Title of proceedings (page numbers). doi:DOI [or Retrieved from URL]


Conference paper abstract retrieved online
Liu, S. (2005, May). Defending against business crises with the help of intelligent agent based early warning solutions. Paper presented at the Seventh International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems, Miami, FL. Abstract retrieved from

Paper published in conference proceedings
Morgan, R., Meldrum, K., Bryan, S., Mathiesen, B., Yakob, N., Esa, N., & Ziden, A. A. (2017). Embedding digital literacies in curricula: Australian and Malaysian experiences. In G. B. Teh & S. C. Choy (Eds.), Empowering 21st century learners through holistic and enterprising learning: Selected papers from Tunku Abdul Rahman University College International Conference 2016 (pp. 11–19). doi:10.1007/978-981-10-4241-6_2

Paper presented at conference, not formally published in proceedings (also used for poster presentations)
Bland, A. (2017, November). The implementation of a junior Samoan language programme in a South Island, New Zealand secondary school context. Paper presented at the Australian Association for Research in Education (AARE) Conference 2017, Canberra, Australia.


Doctoral dissertations and master’s theses

For a doctoral dissertation or master’s thesis available from a database service, use the following reference template:
Author, A. A. (2003). Title of doctoral dissertation or master’s thesis (Doctoral dissertation or master’s thesis). Retrieved from Name of database. (Accession or Order No.)

Ivanović, A. (2019). Accuracy of vertical and horizontal measurements on digital panoramic radiographs with a calibration object in JPEG and DICOM image format (Master’s thesis). Retrieved from

For an unpublished dissertation or thesis, use the following template:
Author, A. A. (1978). Title of doctoral dissertation or master’s thesis (Unpublished doctoral dissertation or master’s thesis). Name of Institution, Location.

Caballero, S. (2004). How to teach first graders (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI.


Technical and research reports

General reference form:
Author, A. A. (1998). Title of work (Report No. xxx). Location: Publisher.


Corporate author, government report
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. (2003). Managing asthma: A guide for schools (NIH Publication No. 02-2650). Retrieved from

Authored report, from nongovernmental organization
Kessy, S. S. A., & Urio, F. M. (2006). The contribution of microfinance institutions to poverty reduction in Tanzania (Research Report No. 06.3). Retrieved from Research on Poverty Alleviation website:­documents_storage­/Publications/­Reports/­06.3_Kessy_and_Urio.pdf



General website article with an author
Author, A. (Year, Month Date of Publication). Article title. Retrieved from URL

Simmons, B. (2015, January 9). The tale of two Flaccos. Retrieved from

General website article without an author
Article title. (Year, Month Date of Publication). Retrieved from URL

Teen posed as doctor at West Palm Beach hospital: police. (2015, January 16). Retrieved from


Audiovisual media

For a motion picture, use the following format:
Producer, A. A. (Producer), & Director, B. B. (Director). (Year). Title of motion picture [Motion picture]. Country of Origin: Studio.

For a music recording, use the following format:
Writer, A. (Copyright year). Title of song [Recorded by B. B. Artist if different from writer]. On Title of album [Medium of recording: CD, record, cassette, etc.] Location: Label. (Date of recording if different from song copyright date)


Film / Motion Picture
Ho, A. K. (Producer) & George, T. (Director). (2004). Hotel Rwanda [Motion picture]. Los Angeles, CA: MGM Studios, Inc.

Music Recording
Meyer, E. (2000). Duet for cello and bass. On Appalacian journey [CD]. New York, NY: Sony.

Van Nuys, D. (Producer). (2007, December 19). Shrink rap radio [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from

Television Broadcast
Palfreman, J. (Writer & Director). (2010). The vaccine war [Television series episode]. In M. Sullivan (Executive producer), Frontline. Boston, MA: WGBH Educational Foundation.

Online video
Harvard University. (2019, August 28). Soft robotic gripper for jellyfish [Video file]. Retrieved from

Citing a photograph
Roege, W.J. (1938). St. Patrick’s cathedral, fifth avenue from 50th street to 51st street [Photograph]. New York, NY: New-York Historical Society.

Citing a photograph retrieved online
Ferraro, A. (2014, April 28). Liberty enlightening the world [Photograph]. Retrieved from

Personal Communications
Unpublished interviews do not need a reference page entry because APA considers them “personal communications”. They do not contain “recoverable data.” Other forms of personal communication include private letters, phone conversations, memos, e-mail or messages from non-archived discussion groups, etc. Because the content cannot be recovered, there is no need to include them in the reference list. Give the initials and surname of the individual and provide a date when the interchange took place.

In-Text Example:

The first draft of the budget was based on information supplied by all boards within the company (P. M. Nuellen, personal communication, April 8, 2009).


APA in-text citations with multiple authors

Multiple author names are separated using a comma. Only the final name in the list is preceded by an ampersand (“&”), for example: (Taylor, Johnson, & Parker, 2019). Use “et al.” to shorten in-text citations of sources with 6+ authors (first in-text citations) and 3+ authors (subsequent in-text citations), for example: (Taylor et al., 2019). Sources with three, four or five authors are shortened after the first citation. From the second citation onwards, include only the first author name followed by “et al.” (“and others”). Sources with six or more authors are always shortened, including in the first citation (Streefkerk, 2018).

Author type

First in-text citation

Subsequent in-text citations

No author

(“Title of the Work,” 2018)

(“Title of the Work,” 2018)

1 author

(Taylor, 2018)

(Taylor, 2018)

2 authors

(Taylor & Kotler, 2018)

(Taylor & Kotler, 2018)

3 – 5 authors

(Taylor, Kotler, Johnson, & Parker, 2018)

(Taylor et al., 2018)

6+ authors

(Taylor et al., 2018)

(Taylor et al., 2018)

(identified through abbreviation)

(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2018)

(CDC, 2018)

(no abbreviation)

(Apple, 2018)

(Apple, 2018)


Streefkerk, R. (2018, December 21). A complete guide to APA in-text citation. Retrieved from