Citing literature

ST-OPEN uses the number-based citations to literature (so-called “Vancouver” style). However, you can submit your manuscript in any format, including references. If your manuscript is accepted for publication, we will work with you on adjusting it to the journal style.
ST-OPEN does not encourage the use of footnotes or endnote comments. All references should be mentioned in the text and listed at the end of the article. Comments should be a part of the manuscript text, in brackets if necessary.
ST-OPEN follows the Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing, and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals developed by International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE). Our reference style is based on ICMJE style. Examples of different types of references are available here.
In the text, references should be numbered consecutively in the order in which they are first mentioned. References should be identified in text, tables, and legends by Arabic numerals in italics and in parentheses, e.g. (1), etc.
References cited only in tables or figure legends should be numbered in accordance with the sequence established by the first identification in the text of the particular table or figure. The titles of journals should be abbreviated.
References to accepted but yet unpublished articles should be designated as “forthcoming.” If you cite an article that has not been submitted yet, should be referenced to only in the text of the manuscript as “unpublished observation.” If the unpublished manuscript is from another researcher or research group, you have to submit written permission from the source. “Personal communications” should be avoided in general and especially in the list of references. Cite such sources in the parentheses in the text, including the name of the person and the date of the communication. For original research manuscript, you should obtain written permission and confirmation of accuracy from the source of such personal communication.
If you are submitting a manuscript that has already been published as a preprint, inform us about this and provide a link to the preprint. It is helpful to state in the manuscript, best in the Introduction section, that the preprint article has been published, so that it is available to the reviewers. When you are citing a preprint in the reference list, the citation should clearly indicate that the reference is a preprint. When a preprint has been subsequently published in a journal you should cite the published article and not the preprint. Indicate that the reference is a preprint with a note [Preprint] after the title of the manuscript, as well as a link to the preprint. We advise against citing preprint that have not been published in a peer reviewed journal after a reasonable time.


Article in a journal, standard journal article:
Kim NE, Han SS, Yoo KH, Yun EK. The impact of user’s perceived ability on online health information acceptance. Telemed J E Health. 2012;18:703–8.

More than six authors
Buljan I, Tokalić R, Roguljić M, Zakarija-Grković I, Vrdoljak D, Milić P, et al. Comparison of blogshots with plain language summaries of Cochrane systematic reviews: A qualitative study and randomized trial. Trials. 2020;21:426.

Organization as author
Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group. Hypertension, insulin, and proinsulin in participants with impaired glucose tolerance. Hypertension. 2002;40:679–86.

Individual authors and a group author
Vallancien G, Emberton M, Harving N, van Moorselaar RJ; Alf-One Study Group. Sexual dysfunction in 1,274 European men suffering from lower urinary tract symptoms. J Urol. 2003;169:2257–61.

No author given
21st century heart solution may have a sting in the tail. BMJ. 2002;325:184.

Article not in English
Ellingsen AE, Wilhelmsen I. Sykdomsangst blant medisin- og jusstudenter. Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2002;122:785–7.

Volume with supplement
Geraud G, Spierings EL, Keywood C. Tolerability and safety of frovatriptan with short- and long-term use for treatment of migraine and in comparison with sumatriptan. Headache. 2002;42 Suppl 2:S93–9.

Issue with supplement
Glauser TA. Integrating clinical trial data into clinical practice. Neurology. 2002;58(12 Suppl 7):S6-12.

Article published electronically ahead of the print version:
Yu WM, Hawley TS, Hawley RG, Qu CK. Immortalization of yolk sac-derived precursor cells. Blood. 2002 Nov 15;100(10):3828-31. Epub 2002 Jul 5.

Books and other monographs
Personal author(s)
Murray PR, Rosenthal KS, Kobayashi GS, Pfaller MA. Medical microbiology. 4th ed. St. Louis: Mosby; 2002.

Editor(s), compiler(s) as author
Gilstrap LC 3rd, Cunningham FG, VanDorsten JP, editors. Operative obstetrics. 2nd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2002.

Author(s) and editor(s)
Breedlove GK, Schorfheide AM. Adolescent pregnancy. 2nd ed. Wieczorek RR, editor. White Plains (NY): March of Dimes Education Services; 2001.

Organization(s) as author
Royal Adelaide Hospital; University of Adelaide, Department of Clinical Nursing. Compendium of nursing research and practice development, 1999-2000. Adelaide (Australia): Adelaide University; 2001.

Chapter in a book
Meltzer PS, Kallioniemi A, Trent JM. Chromosome alterations in human solid tumors. In: Vogelstein B, Kinzler KW, editors. The genetic basis of human cancer. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2002. p. 93–113.

Conference proceedings
Harnden P, Joffe JK, Jones WG, editors. Germ cell tumours V. Proceedings of the 5th Germ Cell Tumour Conference; 2001 Sep 13-15; Leeds, UK. New York: Springer; 2002.

Conference paper
Christensen S, Oppacher F. An analysis of Koza's computational effort statistic for genetic programming. In: Foster JA, Lutton E, Miller J, Ryan C, Tettamanzi AG, editors. Genetic programming. EuroGP 2002: Proceedings of the 5th European Conference on Genetic Programming; 2002 Apr 3-5; Kinsdale, Ireland. Berlin: Springer; 2002. p. 182–91.

Borkowski MM. Infant sleep and feeding: a telephone survey of Hispanic Americans [dissertation]. Mount Pleasant (MI): Central Michigan University; 2002.

Pagedas AC, inventor; Ancel Surgical R&D Inc., assignee. Flexible endoscopic grasping and cutting device and positioning tool assembly. United States patent US 20020103498. 2002 Aug 1.

Newspaper article
Tynan T. Medical improvements lower homicide rate: study sees drop in assault rate. The Washington Post. 2002 Aug 12;Sect. A:2 (col. 4).

Audiovisual material
Chason KW, Sallustio S. Hospital preparedness for bioterrorism [videocassette]. Secaucus (NJ): Network for Continuing Medical Education; 2002.

Legal material
Public law:
Veterans Hearing Loss Compensation Act of 2002, Pub. L. No. 107-9, 115 Stat. 11 (May 24, 2001).

Pratt B, Flick P, Vynne C, cartographers. Biodiversity hotspots [map]. Washington: Conservation International; 2000.

Dictionary and similar references
Dorland's illustrated medical dictionary. 29th ed. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders; 2000. Filamin; p. 675.

Unpublished material
In press/forthcoming:
Tian D, Araki H, Stahl E, Bergelson J, Kreitman M. Signature of balancing selection in Arabidopsis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. Forthcoming 2002.

Electronic material
Homepage/Web site:
International Committee of Medical Journal Editors. Preparing a Manuscript for Submission to a Medical Journal [cited 2022 Aug 8]. Available from: