Citing literature

Because of its multidisciplinary profile, ST-OPEN accepts two styles of literature citing. The authors are free to choose one of the styles and should then strictly adhere to it. ST-OPEN does not encourage the use of footnotes or endnote comments. All references should be mentioned in the text and listed at the end of the article. Comments should be a part of the manuscript text, in brackets if necessary.
The two styles of citing are that of the American Psychological Association (APA, https://apastyle.apa.org/) and the one developed by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE, https://wayback.archive-it.org/org-350/20190414183852/https://www.nlm.nih.gov/bsd/uniform_requirements.html, also known as the Vancouver style). APA style is commonly used in social sciences and humanities, and Vancouver style in natural, life, health and technical sciences.

VANCOUVER STYLE
ST-OPEN adheres to the Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing, and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals developed by International Committee of Medical Journal Editors. Identify the type of reference you want to cite, and then see some of the examples of how this type of reference is cited. The detailed list is available at https://wayback.archive-it.org/org-350/20190414183852/https://www.nlm.nih.gov/bsd/uniform_requirements.html.

Article in a journal, standard journal article:
List the first six authors followed by et al. (Note: NLM now lists all authors.)
Halpern SD, Ubel PA, Caplan AL. Solid-organ transplantation in HIV-infected patients. N Engl J Med. 2002 Jul 25;347(4):284-7.
As an option, if a journal carries continuous pagination throughout a volume (as many journals do) the month and issue number may be omitted.
Halpern SD, Ubel PA, Caplan AL. Solid-organ transplantation in HIV-infected patients. N Engl J Med. 2002;347:284-7.

More than six authors
Rose ME, Huerbin MB, Melick J, Marion DW, Palmer AM, Schiding JK, et al. Regulation of interstitial excitatory amino acid concentrations after cortical contusion injury. Brain Res. 2002;935(1-2):40-6.

Organization as author
Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group. Hypertension, insulin, and proinsulin in participants with impaired glucose tolerance. Hypertension. 2002;40(5):679-86.
Both personal authors and an organization as author (This example does not conform to NISO standards.)
Vallancien G, Emberton M, Harving N, van Moorselaar RJ; Alf-One Study Group. Sexual dysfunction in 1,274 European men suffering from lower urinary tract symptoms. J Urol. 2003;169(6):2257-61.

No author given
21st century heart solution may have a sting in the tail. BMJ. 2002;325(7357):184.

Article not in English
(Note: NLM translates the title into English, encloses the translation in square brackets, and adds an abbreviated language designator.)
Ellingsen AE, Wilhelmsen I. Sykdomsangst blant medisin- og jusstudenter. Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2002;122(8):785-7.

Volume with supplement
Geraud G, Spierings EL, Keywood C. Tolerability and safety of frovatriptan with short- and long-term use for treatment of migraine and in comparison with sumatriptan. Headache. 2002;42 Suppl 2:S93-9.

Issue with supplement
Glauser TA. Integrating clinical trial data into clinical practice. Neurology. 2002;58(12 Suppl 7):S6-12.

Article published electronically ahead of the print version:
Yu WM, Hawley TS, Hawley RG, Qu CK. Immortalization of yolk sac-derived precursor cells. Blood. 2002 Nov 15;100(10):3828-31. Epub 2002 Jul 5.

Books and other monographs
Personal author(s)
Murray PR, Rosenthal KS, Kobayashi GS, Pfaller MA. Medical microbiology. 4th ed. St. Louis: Mosby; 2002.

Editor(s), compiler(s) as author
Gilstrap LC 3rd, Cunningham FG, VanDorsten JP, editors. Operative obstetrics. 2nd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2002.

Author(s) and editor(s)
Breedlove GK, Schorfheide AM. Adolescent pregnancy. 2nd ed. Wieczorek RR, editor. White Plains (NY): March of Dimes Education Services; 2001.

Organization(s) as author
Royal Adelaide Hospital; University of Adelaide, Department of Clinical Nursing. Compendium of nursing research and practice development, 1999-2000. Adelaide (Australia): Adelaide University; 2001.

Chapter in a book
Meltzer PS, Kallioniemi A, Trent JM. Chromosome alterations in human solid tumors. In: Vogelstein B, Kinzler KW, editors. The genetic basis of human cancer. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2002. p. 93-113.

Conference proceedings
Harnden P, Joffe JK, Jones WG, editors. Germ cell tumours V. Proceedings of the 5th Germ Cell Tumour Conference; 2001 Sep 13-15; Leeds, UK. New York: Springer; 2002.

Conference paper
Christensen S, Oppacher F. An analysis of Koza's computational effort statistic for genetic programming. In: Foster JA, Lutton E, Miller J, Ryan C, Tettamanzi AG, editors. Genetic programming. EuroGP 2002: Proceedings of the 5th European Conference on Genetic Programming; 2002 Apr 3-5; Kinsdale, Ireland. Berlin: Springer; 2002. p. 182-91.

Dissertation
Borkowski MM. Infant sleep and feeding: a telephone survey of Hispanic Americans [dissertation]. Mount Pleasant (MI): Central Michigan University; 2002.

Patent
Pagedas AC, inventor; Ancel Surgical R&D Inc., assignee. Flexible endoscopic grasping and cutting device and positioning tool assembly. United States patent US 20020103498. 2002 Aug 1.

Newspaper article
Tynan T. Medical improvements lower homicide rate: study sees drop in assault rate. The Washington Post. 2002 Aug 12;Sect. A:2 (col. 4).

Audiovisual material
Chason KW, Sallustio S. Hospital preparedness for bioterrorism [videocassette]. Secaucus (NJ): Network for Continuing Medical Education; 2002.

Legal material
Public law:
Veterans Hearing Loss Compensation Act of 2002, Pub. L. No. 107-9, 115 Stat. 11 (May 24, 2001).

Unenacted bill:
Healthy Children Learn Act, S. 1012, 107th Cong., 1st Sess. (2001).

Code of Federal Regulations:
Cardiopulmonary Bypass Intracardiac Suction Control, 21 C.F.R. Sect. 870.4430 (2002).

Map
Pratt B, Flick P, Vynne C, cartographers. Biodiversity hotspots [map]. Washington: Conservation International; 2000.

Dictionary and similar references
Dorland's illustrated medical dictionary. 29th ed. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders; 2000. Filamin; p. 675.

Unpublished material
In press:
(Note: NLM prefers "forthcoming" because not all items will be printed.)
Tian D, Araki H, Stahl E, Bergelson J, Kreitman M. Signature of balancing selection in Arabidopsis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. In press 2002.

Electronic material
Journal article on the Internet
Abood S. Quality improvement initiative in nursing homes: the ANA acts in an advisory role. Am J Nurs [serial on the Internet]. 2002 Jun [cited 2002 Aug 12];102(6):[about 3 p.]. Available from: http://www.nursingworld.org/AJN/2002/june/Wawatch.htm

Monograph on the Internet
Foley KM, Gelband H, editors. Improving palliative care for cancer [monograph on the Internet]. Washington: National Academy Press; 2001 [cited 2002 Jul 9]. Available from: http://www.nap.edu/books/0309074029/html/.

Homepage/Web site:
Cancer-Pain.org [homepage on the Internet]. New York: Association of Cancer Online Resources, Inc.; c2000-01 [updated 2002 May 16; cited 2002 Jul 9]. Available from: http://www.cancer-pain.org/.

Part of a homepage/Web site:
American Medical Association [homepage on the Internet]. Chicago: The Association; c1995-2002 [updated 2001 Aug 23; cited 2002 Aug 12]. AMA Office of Group Practice Liaison; [about 2 screens]. Available from: http://www.ama-assn.org/ama/pub/category/1736.html

Database on the Internet
Open database:
Who's Certified [database on the Internet]. Evanston (IL): The American Board of Medical Specialists. c2000 - [cited 2001 Mar 8]. Available from: http://www.abms.org/newsearch.asp

Closed database:
Jablonski S. Online Multiple Congential Anomaly/Mental Retardation (MCA/MR) Syndromes [database on the Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US). c1999 [updated 2001 Nov 20; cited 2002 Aug 12]. Available from: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/jablonski/syndrome_title.html

APA STYLE
American Psychological Association (APA) style (http://www.bibme.org/citation-guide/apa) requires that all in-text citations in the manuscript should have a corresponding full reference at the end of the article under the title “References”.
References are listed in alphabetical order by the first word in the reference (usually the author's last name, sometimes the title). If the reference begins with the words A, An, or The, ignore them and alphabetize the reference by the word following it.

Article in a journal
Author, A. (Publication Year). Article title. Periodical Title, Volume(Issue), pp-pp.

Example:
Nevin, A. (1990). The changing of teacher education special education. Teacher Education and Special Education: The Journal of the Teacher Education Division of the Council for Exceptional Children, 13(4), 147-148.

Book
Author, A. (Year of Publication). Title of work. Publisher City, State: Publisher.

Example:
Finney, J. (1970). Time and again. New York, NY: Simon and Schuster (Note: When citing a book in APA, keep in mind to capitalize the first letter of the first word of the title and any subtitles, as well as the first letter of any proper nouns. The full title of the book, including any subtitles, should be stated and italicized).

Citing a book in a database
Author, A. (Year of Publication). Title of work. Retrieved from http://xxxx or DOI:xxxx.

Example:
Sayre, Rebecca K., Devercelli, A.E., Neuman, M.J., & Wodon, Q. (2015). Investment in early childhood development: Review of the world bank’s recent experience. DOI: 10.1596/978-1-4648-0403-8

(Note: When citing an online book or e-book in APA, keep in mind that DOI (digital object identifier) is an assigned number that helps link content to its location on the Internet. It is therefore important, if one is provided, to use it when creating a citation. All DOI numbers begin with a 10 and are separated by a slash.

Chapter in Print Book
Last, F. M. (Year Published). Title of chapter In F. M. Last Editor (Ed.), Title of book/anthology (pp. Pages). Publisher City, State: Publisher.

Examples:
Serviss, G. P. (1911). A trip of terror. In A Columbus of space (pp. 17-32). New York, NY: Appleton.
Hemingway, E. (1999). The killers. In J. Updike & K. Kenison (Eds.), The best American short stories of the century (pp.78-80). Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.
Chapter in Online Book: Last, F. M. (Year Published). Section title. In F. M. Last (Ed.), Book/anthology [E-reader version, if used] (pp. Pages). doi:# or Retrieved from URL:

Examples:
Serviss, G. P. (1911). A trip of terror. A Columbus of space. Retrieved from http://books.google.com
Bellow, S. (1999). A silver dish. In J. Updike & K. Kenison (Eds.), The best american short stories of the century. Retrieved from http://books.google.com

Citing an Introduction, Preface, Foreword, or Afterword
Last, F. M. (Year Published). Section title [Section Type]. In F. M. Last & F. M. Last (Eds.), Book/anthology (pp. Pages). City, State: Publisher.

Examples:
Sanders, S. R. (2007). [Introduction]. In L. Williford & M. Martone (Eds.), Touchstone anthology of contemporary creative nonfiction: Work from 1970 to present (pp. 148-151). New York, NY: Simon & Schuster.
Masur, L. P. (2011). Preface. In The Civil War: A concise history (pp. Iv-Xii). Oxford, U.K.: Oxford University Press.

General website article with an author
Author, A. (Year, Month Date of Publication). Article title. Retrieved from URL (in italics)

Example:
Simmons, B. (2015, January 9). The tale of two Flaccos. Retrieved from http://grantland.com/the-triangle/the-tale-of-two-flaccos/

General website article without an author
Article title. (Year, Month Date of Publication). Retrieved from URL (in italics)

Example:
Teen posed as doctor at West Palm Beach hospital: police. (2015, January 16). Retrieved from http://www.nbcmiami.com/news/local/Teen-Posed-as-Doctor-at-West-Palm-Beach-Hospital-Police-288810831.html

An encyclopedia entry in print
Author, A. (Publication Year). Entry title. In Encyclopedia title, (Vol. XX, pp. XX). City, State of publication: Publisher.

Example:
Kammen, C., & Wilson, A.H. (2012). Monuments. In Encyclopedia of local history. (pp. 363-364). Lanham, MD: AltaMira Press.

A newspaper article in print
Author, A. (Year, Month Date of Publication). Article title. Newspaper Title, pp. xx-xx.

Example:
Rosenberg, G. (1997, March 31). Electronic discovery proves an effective legal weapon. The New York Times, p. D5.
Note: When creating your newspaper citation, keep in mind: Precede page numbers for newspaper articles with p. (for a single page) or pp. (for multiple pages). If an article appears on discontinuous pages, give all page numbers, and separate the numbers with a comma (e.g., pp. B1, B3, B5-B7).

A newspaper article found online
Author, A. (Year, Month Date of Publication). Article title. Newspaper Title, Retrieved from newspaper homepage URL (in italic).

Example:
Rosenberg, G. (1997, March 31). Electronic discovery proves an effective legal weapon. The New York Times, Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com
Note: When citing a newspaper in APA, keep in mind: APA does NOT require you to include the date of access for electronic sources. If you discovered a newspaper article via an online database, that information is NOT required for the citation either. Multiple lines: If the URL runs onto a second line, only break URL before punctuation (except for http://).

Citing a photograph
Photographer, A.. (Photographer). (Year, Month Date of Publication). Title of photograph [photograph]. City, State of publication: Publisher/museum.

Example:
Roege, W.J. (Photographer). (1938). St. Patrick’s cathedral, fifth avenue from 50th street to 51st street [photograph]. New York, NY: New-York Historical Society.

Citing a photograph retrieved online
Photographer, A. (Photographer). (Year, Month Date of Publication). Title of photograph [digital image]. Retrieved from URL (in italics)

Example:
Ferraro, A. (Photographer). (2014, April 28). Liberty enlightening the world [digital image]. Retrieved from https://www.flickr.com/photos/afer92/14278571753/in/set-72157644617030616

APA in-text citations with multiple authors

Multiple author names are separated using a comma. Only the final name in the list is preceded by an ampersand (“&”), for example: (Taylor, Johnson, & Parker, 2019). Use “et al.” to shorten in-text citations of sources with 6+ authors (first in-text citations) and 3+ authors (subsequent in-text citations), for example: (Taylor et al., 2019). Sources with three, four or five authors are shortened after the first citation. From the second citation onwards, include only the first author name followed by “et al.” (“and others”). Sources with six or more authors are always shortened, including in the first citation (Streefkerk, 2018).

Author type

First in-text citation

Subsequent in-text citations

No author

(“Title of the Work,” 2018)

(“Title of the Work,” 2018)

1 author

(Taylor, 2018)

(Taylor, 2018)

2 authors

(Taylor & Kotler, 2018)

(Taylor & Kotler, 2018)

3 – 5 authors

(Taylor, Kotler, Johnson, & Parker, 2018)

(Taylor et al., 2018)

6+ authors

(Taylor et al., 2018)

(Taylor et al., 2018)

Organization
(identified through abbreviation)

(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2018)

(CDC, 2018)

Organization 
(no abbreviation)

(Apple, 2018)

(Apple, 2018)

 

References:
Streefkerk, R. (2018, December 21). A complete guide to APA in-text citation. Retrieved from https://www.scribbr.com/apa-style/in-text-citation/